Java Is Supplied From a Single Source

Java is designed and freely distributed from Sun. There no other contributor and third parties to complicate matters. Sun described his role as the evangelist for Java. Java is planned and relesead from a single source. With the careful planning, implementation and distribution of Sun, Java has gained an outstanding uniformity. This gives and additional feeling of confidence to the programmers. There is only one kind of Java, one can follow what was released before and what is planned for future releases. Recently Oracle took over the flag and their commitment towards Java continues. We can be confident for the progress of Java and invest our codes on it.

1.2 - Java Releases

1.2.1-JDK 1.0

The first release of Java Development Kit (JDK) took place in 26 January 1996. This version codenamed "Oak", This release include stable JDK 1.0.2 , an appletviewer, class libraries for animation, networking, audio, graphics.

1.2.2-JDK 1.1

The second release of Java Development Kit (JDK) was in 19 February 1997. This an improvement release. A new AWT together with RMI (Remote Method Invocation), JDBC (Java Database Connectivity), JavaBeans are added to the language.

1.2.3 - J2SE 1.2

This release codenamed "Playground" is one of the major releases of Java platform released in December 8 1998. In this release, Java environment is assembled in three platforms. The first one is named "Java 2 Platform Standard Edition) (J2SE), the second is for enterprises "Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition(J2EE) and one for microdevices (J2ME). There are important additions to the language as integration of Swing graphical API to core language, first JIT, Java IDL implementation, Collections framework.

1.2.4-J2SE 1.3

Released in May 8 2000. with a codename "Kestrel". In this relase, HotSpot JVM relased in April 1999 is included to the platform. Also RMI (Remote Method Invocation) is improved for CORBA support, added Java Sound, added Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI), added Java Platform Debugger Architecture (JPDA). Also added new synthetic proxy classes.

1.2.5-J2SE 1.4

This release had a "Merlin" as a code name and announced in 6 February 2002. This is the first release which took place in the auspices of the Java Community Process, a new board responsible of the development of the Java Programming Platform. With that release assert keyword is added to the language. This is mainly an improvement release including new Perl like regular expressions, new preferences API, IPv6 support, NIO (Non Blocking IO) input/output, new logging API, and XML parser with XSLT support (JAXP), graphical support for new image formats like PNG and JPEG, new integrated security and cryptography, Java Web Start.

1.2.6 -J2SE 5.0

Codenamed"Tiger" and released in september 30 2004, this is a legendary version of Java Ecosystem. Internally labelled as J2SE 1.5, the brand name is chanted to J2SE 5.0, which is called in short "Java 5". There is new language lements introduced with this release, together with many bug fixes and improvement of existing libraries.

New introduced language elemnts are generics, annotations, autoboxing/inboxing, Perl like foreach loops, varargs, enumeration, static imports, Scanner class for inputing data from various sources. We will present all of them in our lessons in detail.

With this release, Java memory model is also improved. There is also improvements in RMI, in Swing, concurrency utilities.

The impact of Java 5 is so great that people say "before Java 5" or after "Java 5". With Java 5 Java ecosystem has forged his pavements in the route of being one the major programming platforms of contemporary era. This target is much more justified with forthcoming releases.

1.2.7 -Java SE 6

Java 6 , codename"Mustang" is a bug fix and improvement release. No new language elements are introduced but extensive bugfixes and existing elements are either improved or upgraded.

1.2.8 -Java SE 7

Java 7 , codename"Dolphin" is a major Java upgrade released in July 7 2011. Together with the improvements over existing features, there is new introduced language features. JVM now supports dynamic languages, new nio packages, new concurrency support, new cryptographic facilities, extendex XML and Unicode support, extended graphic capabiliites, enhanced networking support etc...

The most important language addenda is assembled under the project undet the codename "Coin". The most importants are binary literals, Strings in switch statement, extended typecasting, extended try statement, improved generics, simplified vararargs declaration, binary integer literals, underscores in numeric literals, improved type checking.

These make Java 7 among the most influencing language releases of Java platform. We can not compile the Java programs including the features came with Java 7 with older versions of JVM.

Java 7 has undergone sevaral updates, including some bugfixes. The latest upgrade, Java 7 update 4 is released at 26 April 2012 and includes a new JVM (Java Hotspot VM version 23). It is very advisable to install the latest release.

1.2.9 -Java SE 8

In Java 8 there will be many important improvements. First, this release will include some features depicted in the project "Coin" but could not be included in Java 7. Another important addendum to the core language will be lambda expressions known as "closures". The dabate whether lambda expressions should be included in Java is cocluded and it is decided that these expressions should be an integral part of the Java language. This will prevent some new cosmetic languages to bring forth forom Java. There will be also modularization of the JDK under the project JIGSAW and improved integration with Java FX. This means quite an impressive programming platform.

Actually, this release is included in the Java 8 early access. We will use this platform, until the release of the Java 8 planned for summer 2013.

1.2.10 -Java 9

In JavaOne of 2011, Oracle reveals what is planning for Java 9. These are self tuning JVM and better support for larger programs. If all the features planned for the Java 8 may be realised, perhaps there might not to be too much left for the Java 9.

1.2.10 -Java 10

It is perhaps not an expected very close release, but is intended to arrange the primitives acting exactly as objects.

In conclusion, Java wealth is huge, language is simple with many other attractive features and it is a constanly developping programming environment. Being fluent in Java, may be considered as one of the basic steps of the programming career.

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